Self-consumption” is defined as any operation whereby the packaging producer uses other packaging – manufactured by the producer – to package its own products.
Self-producers” are defined as any parties that purchase raw materials and packaging materials in order to manufacture/repair packaging for their own products (which are different from the packaging). For all intents and purposes, self-producers are considered users, including for the raw material involved in repairing their own packaging.
Any company which, over a certain period, has exported more full packaging (in terms of weight) than it has imported, taking each packaging material into account separately.
Article 223 of Legislative Decree No 152/06 requires that packaging producers form a Consortium for each packaging material (steel, aluminium, paper, wood, plastic and glass). The six Industry Consortiums are as follows:
- RICREA – National Consortium for the Recycling and Recovery of Steel Packaging;
- CIAL – Aluminium Packaging Consortium;
- COMIECO – National Consortium for the Recovery and Recycling of Cellulose-Based Packaging;
- RILEGNO – National Consortium for the Collection, Recovery and Recycling of Wooden Packaging;
- COREPLA – National Consortium for the Collection, Recycling and Recovery of Plastic Packaging;
- CO.RE.VE. – Glass Recovery Consortium. As an alternative to registering with the Industry Consortiums, producers may, pursuant to Article 221, paragraph 3 of the same Decree:
“a) independently or collectively organise the management of their own packaging waste all across Italy; […]
c) certify under their own responsibility that a return system has been put in place for their own packaging through appropriate documentation proving the self-sufficiency of the system […].
The packaging consumer is the party who, while not running a professional business, purchases or imports packaging, items or packaged goods for their own use.
Pursuant to the provisions of Article 183, paragraph 1 (h) of Legislative Decree No 152/06, the waste holder is “the producer of the waste or the natural or legal person who is in possession of it.
Pursuant to the provisions of Article 183, paragraph 1 (n) of Legislative Decree No 152/06, waste management means: “the collection, transport, recovery and disposal of waste, including the supervision of such operations and the after-care of disposal sites, and including actions taken as a dealer or broker.
In this Guide, the term “full packaging” shall mean any packaged goods and, in particular, the packaging alone of these goods. For example, for an importer of cans of beer, “full packaging” shall mean the aluminium in the cans as well as any other secondary and tertiary packaging used.
Under Legislative Decree No 152/06, Article 218 (b), primary packaging is defined as “packaging conceived so as to constitute a sales unit to the final user or consumer at the point of purchase”. Generally speaking, primary packaging is used for an individual product ready for consumption.
Under Legislative Decree No 152/06, Article 218 (c), secondary packaging is defined as “packaging conceived so as to constitute at the point of purchase a grouping of a certain number of sales units whether the latter is sold as such to the final user or consumer or whether it serves only as a means to replenish the shelves at the point of sale, and which can be removed from the product without affecting its characteristics”. Generally speaking, secondary packaging is used to group a certain number of individual products ready for consumption. Once removed from the secondary packaging, the product is unaltered and ready for use in its primary packaging.
Nel D.Lgs. 152/06 – art. 218, lettera d) – l’imballaggio terziario è
definito come “imballaggio concepito in modo da facilitare la manipolazione
ed il trasporto di merci, dalle materie prime ai prodotti
finiti, di un certo numero di unità di vendita oppure di imballaggi
multipli per evitare la loro manipolazione ed i danni connessi al trasporto,
esclusi i container per i trasporti stradali, ferroviari, marittimi
ed aerei”. In generale l’imballaggio terziario è destinato a proteggere
e a facilitare la movimentazione delle merci durante il trasporto.
Under Legislative Decree No 152/06, Article 218 (d), tertiary packaging is defined as “packaging conceived so as to facilitate handling and transport of goods, from raw materials to finished products, or of a certain number of sales units or grouped packaging to prevent physical handling and transport damage, excluding containers for road, rail, sea and air transport”. Generally speaking, tertiary packaging is used to protect and facilitate the handling of goods during transportation.
This is packaging structurally formed of different bonded materials which cannot be separated by hand. For example, the following items are bonded packaging:
- drinks cartons (bonded paper, plastic and aluminium)
- small sachets made from a sheet of aluminium bonded with paper
The CONAI Environmental Contribution is applied to the “first supply”. This means the transfer, including temporarily or under any capacity, within Italy of the finished packaging by the “final producer” to the “first user” or of the packaging material by a producer of raw materials (or semi-finished products) to a serving or proclaimed self-producer.
The first packaging user is the recipient of the first supply, i.e. the first transfer of the packaging. For example, this could be a shoe factory which purchases cardboard boxes from a packaging producer to package its own products.
According to Article 218, paragraph 1 (r) of Legislative Decree No 152/06, packaging producers are any “suppliers of packaging materials, manufacturers, processors and importers of empty packaging and packaging materials.
Article 225 of Legislative Decree No 152/06 requires that CONAI develops a general programme for the prevention and management of packaging and packaging waste which identifies for individual types of packaging materials certain measures to achieve the following goals:
- a) to prevent the formation of packaging waste;
- b) to increase the ratio of recyclable packaging waste to non-recyclable packaging;
- c) to increase the ratio of reusable packaging waste to non-reusable packaging;
- d) to improve packaging so it can handle more trips or rotations in the conditions of use usually expected of this packaging;
- e) to achieve the recovery and recycling goals.
Pursuant to the provisions of Article 183, paragraph 1 (o) of Legislative Decree No 152/06, the term “collection” shall mean “the gathering, preliminary sorting and storage of waste, including the management of the collection centres under letter “mm”, for the purposes of transport to a waste treatment facility.
Pursuant to the provisions of Article 218, paragraph 1 (m) of Legislative Decree No 152/06, this includes any operations that use packaging waste to generate secondary raw materials, products or fuels through mechanical, thermal, chemical or biological processes, including sorting and, in particular, any operations provided for under Annex C, Section Four of the same Decree
Pursuant to the provisions of Article 218, paragraph 1 (n) of Legislative Decree No 152/06, packaging waste energy recovery is when combustible packaging waste is used to generate energy through incineration (with or without other waste) with the recovery of heat.
This is the reprocessing in a production process of packaging waste for its original function or for other purposes, including organic recycling but excluding energy recovery (Article 218, paragraph 1 (l) of Legislative Decree No 152/06).
Packaging waste is: all packaging or packaging materials that fall under the definition of waste, i.e. “any substance or object which the holder discards or intends or is required to discard”, excluding production residues (Article 218, paragraph 1 (f) and Article 183, paragraph 1 (a) of Legislative Decree No 152/06).
Packaging is reused, as defined under Article 218, paragraph 1 (i) of Legislative Decree No 152/06, when the packaging, which can be used several times due to its structure, is refilled or redeployed for an identical use to the one for which it was designed. In this case, packaging waste is not produced since the holder does not want to “discard” the packaging.
According to Article 218, paragraph 1 (s) of Legislative Decree No 152/06, users are any “retailers, distributors, fillers, packaging users and full packaging importers.
A subsequent packaging user is the party which purchases packaging (or packaged goods) after the first supply, i.e. after the first transfer of the packaging. For example, a retailer who purchases pre-packaged shoes in cardboard boxes from the shoe factory.